Data archive: Larval habitats of the Anopheles farauti and Anopheles lungae complexes in the Solomon Islands

Background: There is an urgent need for vector control tools to supplement long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS); particularly in the Solomon Islands where the primary vector, Anopheles farauti, is highly anthropophagic and feeds mainly outdoors and early in the evening. Currently, the only supplementary tool recommended by the World Health Organization is larval source management (LSM). The feasibility and potential effectiveness of LSM requires information on the distribution of anophelines, the productivity of larval habitats and the potential impacts of larval control on adult fitness.

Methods: The distribution of anophelines in Central and Western Provinces in the Solomon Islands was examined by cross-sectional larval habitat surveys. The composition and micro-distribution of larval instars within a large permanent river-mouth lagoon was examined with a longitudinal survey. Density-dependent regulation of An. farauti larvae was investigated by longitudinally following the development and survival of different densities of first instars in floating cages in a river-mouth lagoon.

Results: Five anopheline species were molecularly identified from a range of fresh and brackish water habitats: An. farauti s.s., An. hinesorum, An. lungae, An. nataliae and An. solomonis. The most common habitat used by the primary vector, An. farauti, was coastal lagoons and swamps. In the detailed study of lagoon micro-productivity, it was found that Anopheles farauti was non-uniformly distributed with highest densities found at collections sites most proximal and distal to the mouth of the lagoon. The survival of An. farauti larvae was more than two-fold lower when larvae were held at the highest experimental density (100 per cage) when compared with the lowest density (10 per cage).

Conclusions: The only documented major malaria vector collected in larval surveys in both Central and Western Provinces was An. farauti. While the most common and largest and (potentially) most productive larval sites of this malaria vector were “few, fixed and findable” and theoretically therefore amenable to successful LSM, the immense scale and complexity of the ecosystem in which An. farauti larvae are found raises questions regarding the ability to effectively control the larvae, especially as incomplete larviciding could trigger density dependent effects resulting in increased larval survivorship. While LSM has the potential to significantly contribute to malaria control of this early and outdoor biting vector, more information on the distribution of larvae within these extensive habitats and our ability to effectively target is required to maximize the effectiveness of LSM.

    Data Record Details
    Data record related to this publication Data archive: Larval habitats of the Anopheles farauti and Anopheles lungae complexes in the Solomon Islands
    Data Publication title Data archive: Larval habitats of the Anopheles farauti and Anopheles lungae complexes in the Solomon Islands
  • Description

    Background: There is an urgent need for vector control tools to supplement long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS); particularly in the Solomon Islands where the primary vector, Anopheles farauti, is highly anthropophagic and feeds mainly outdoors and early in the evening. Currently, the only supplementary tool recommended by the World Health Organization is larval source management (LSM). The feasibility and potential effectiveness of LSM requires information on the distribution of anophelines, the productivity of larval habitats and the potential impacts of larval control on adult fitness.

    Methods: The distribution of anophelines in Central and Western Provinces in the Solomon Islands was examined by cross-sectional larval habitat surveys. The composition and micro-distribution of larval instars within a large permanent river-mouth lagoon was examined with a longitudinal survey. Density-dependent regulation of An. farauti larvae was investigated by longitudinally following the development and survival of different densities of first instars in floating cages in a river-mouth lagoon.

    Results: Five anopheline species were molecularly identified from a range of fresh and brackish water habitats: An. farauti s.s., An. hinesorum, An. lungae, An. nataliae and An. solomonis. The most common habitat used by the primary vector, An. farauti, was coastal lagoons and swamps. In the detailed study of lagoon micro-productivity, it was found that Anopheles farauti was non-uniformly distributed with highest densities found at collections sites most proximal and distal to the mouth of the lagoon. The survival of An. farauti larvae was more than two-fold lower when larvae were held at the highest experimental density (100 per cage) when compared with the lowest density (10 per cage).

    Conclusions: The only documented major malaria vector collected in larval surveys in both Central and Western Provinces was An. farauti. While the most common and largest and (potentially) most productive larval sites of this malaria vector were “few, fixed and findable” and theoretically therefore amenable to successful LSM, the immense scale and complexity of the ecosystem in which An. farauti larvae are found raises questions regarding the ability to effectively control the larvae, especially as incomplete larviciding could trigger density dependent effects resulting in increased larval survivorship. While LSM has the potential to significantly contribute to malaria control of this early and outdoor biting vector, more information on the distribution of larvae within these extensive habitats and our ability to effectively target is required to maximize the effectiveness of LSM.

  • Other Descriptors
    • Descriptor

      This dataset consists of a description of data archiving and data dictionaries in PDF format, a spreadsheet in MS Excel (.xlsx) and Open Document (.ods) formats, 2 CSV (comma separated values) files (.csv) and a zipped file of GIS data in .jpeg, .apl, .prj, .sbn, .sbx, .shp, .shx and .txt formats.

    • Descriptor type Note
  • Data type dataset
  • Keywords
    • Solomon Islands
    • malaria
    • Anopheles farauti
    • species distribution
    • density dependent development
  • Funding source
  • Research grant(s)/Scheme name(s)
    • 19377 - (James Cook University Research Activities) Malaria Transmission Consortium Supplement
    • 20247 - (James Cook University Research Activities) Transmission (ICEMR)
  • Research themes
    Tropical Health, Medicine and Biosecurity
    FoR Codes (*)
    • 060207 - Population Ecology
    • 111799 - Public Health and Health Services not elsewhere classified
    SEO Codes
    • 960405 - Control of Pests, Diseases and Exotic Species at Regional or Larger Scales
    • 920499 - Public Health (excl. Specific Population Health) not elsewhere classified
    Specify spatial or temporal setting of the data
    Temporal (time) coverage
  • Start Date 2011/02/28
  • End Date 2013/06/05
  • Time Period
    Spatial (location) coverage
  • Locations
    • Solomon Islands
  • Related publications
      Name Russell, Tanya L., Burkot, Thomas R., Bugoro, Hugo, Apairamo, Allan, Beebe, Nigel W., Chow, Weng K., Cooper, Robert D., Collins, Frank H., and Lobo, Neil F. (2016) Larval habitats of the Anopheles farauti and Anopheles lungae complexes in the Solomon Islands. Malaria Journal, 15 (164). pp. 1-9.
    • URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12936-016-1196-7
    • Notes Open Access
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    The data will be licensed under CC BY: Attribution 3.0 AU
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  • Data owners
      James Cook University
    Citation Russell, Tanya; Burkot, Thomas; Bugoro, H; Apairamo, A; Beebe, N; Chow, W; Cooper, R; Collins, F; Lobo, N (2016): Data archive: Larval habitats of the Anopheles farauti and Anopheles lungae complexes in the Solomon Islands. James Cook University. https://doi.org/10.4225/28/56C6511C9B57D