The participants for the study comprised of community dwelling older adults aged 60 and above living in Townsville, Queensland. Recruitment of the participants occurred between 1 July 2015 and 20 December 2015. Participants were recruited through a snowball method mainly through organizations including the JCU medical school volunteers group and the Townsville Region Committee on the Ageing Inc. (TRCOTA). Recruitment flyers were used to advertise a study of normal sleep patterns and encouraged all types of older adults to participate. 100 participants (53 female and 47 male) participated in the study.
Demographic data collected included gender, age, years of education, BMI (Body Mass Index), employment status, caffeine, smoking and substance abuse data and data presence of pain, nocturia, diabetes, COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease), non-skin cancer, osteoarthritis, CVD (Cardiovascular Disease), hypertension and sleeping disorders.
Participants were assessed against the following scales: GDS (Geriatric Depression Scale); IADL (Instrumental Activities of Daily Living); GAI ( Geriatric Anxiety Inventory); PSQI (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory); ACE scores (Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination III); ESS (daytime sleepiness) (Epworth Sleepiness Scale). Participants recorded subjective overnight sleep duration and time awake and nap frequency and duration over a 7 day period. Duration units are in minutes. Alcohol consumption and use of estrogen or benzodiazepines were also recorded. Objective data were collected using Fitbit activity trackers and the following calculated: Sleep efficiency (ratio of total sleep time to total time in bed X 100%); Lg10tACE (transformation of ACE scores); Sqsleepdurationsubj (TSTs 2 + TSTs - square of subjective sleep duration plus sleep duration); Sqsleepdurationobj (TSTo 2 + TSTo (square of objective sleep duration plus sleep duration)