Research Data

In vitro percutaneous absorption data for model chemicals in Litoria caerulea and Rhinella marina: chemicals formulated in Amphibian Ringer’s solution


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In vitro percutaneous absorption data for model chemicals in Litoria caerulea and Rhinella marina: chemicals formulated in Amphibian Ringer’s solution
Date Record Created
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Date Coverage
2016-12-10 to 2017-04-07
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  1. Type: brief

    Percutaneous absorption kinetics of caffeine, benzoic acid, and ibuprofen through isolated skin from the green tree frog Litoria caerulea, and the terrestrial toad Rhinella marina.


  2. Type: full

    Although it is accepted that frogs have highly-permeable skin, little is known how the physicochemical characteristics of chemicals, or skin region of chemical application, influence percutaneous absorption in frogs. Additionally, frog species from different primary habitats have different skin composition, thickness and vascularisation, and this is also likely to influence percutaneous absorption. This dataset provides in vitro absorption kinetics for three model chemicals - benzoic acid, caffeine, and ibuprofen - through excised skin of two frog species: the arboreal frog Litoria caerulea and the terrestrial toad Rhinella marina. Franz-type diffusion cells were used to measure absorption, and chemical content was quantified using validated HPLC methods.

    Each chemical was formulated as a saturated solution (infinite dose) in Amphibian Ringer’s solution and applied to the external skin surface. Diffusion through the skin was measured over a period of six hours for benzoic acid and caffeine, and for 24 hours for ibuprofen. Chemical flux was determined from the steady-state slope of the cumulative absorption vs time plot.

    Data includes a spreadsheet (comma-separated values / .csv file) providing individual animal information (including animal ID, species, sex, weight, and from which body regions each skin sample was obtained), chemical information including name, concentration, logP and molecular weight, and absorption data including chemical content at each sample time and calculated flux and Kp values.

    Column headings are explained below:

    AnimalID: individual animal identifier

    Conc: concentration of chemical applied (microgram/ml)

    Chemical: chemical applied to the skin (caffeine/benzoic acid/ibuprofen)

    LogP: logarithm of the partition coefficient for chemical investigated

    MW: molecular weight of the chemical investigated

    Species: frogs species used (L. caerulea or Rh. marina)

    Sex: frog sex

    Weight: frog weight in grams

    Region: primary skin region (dorsal=D/ ventral=V) of skin sample

    SubRegion: For Rh. marina, identifies if ventral samples are thoracic (T) or pelvic (P)  in origin. Otherwise same as Region (Dorsal=D, Ventral=V)

    LeftRightMid: identifies if samples taken from left (L), right (R) or on the midline (M)

    Flux: steady-state flux of the chemical

    logFlux: logarithm of flux

    Kp: permeability coefficient of the chemical (Kp=Conc/Flux)

    t=0 through t=24: concentration (microgram/ml) of chemical in receptor fluid at each sampling time (hr)

Related Publications
  1. Llewelyn, Victoria K., Berger, Lee, and Glass, Beverley D. (2019) Effects of skin region and relative lipophilicity on percutaneous absorption in the toad Rhinella marina. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 38 (2). pp. 361-367.
  2. Llewelyn, Victoria K., Berger, Lee, and Glass, Beverley D. (2018) Regional variation in percutaneous absorption in the tree frog Litoria caerulea. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, 60. pp. 5-11.
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  1. Owned by: Mrs Victoria Llewelyn , , Pharmacy
Primary Contact
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  1. Prof Beverley Glass ,
  2. Dr Lee Berger ,
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Fields of Research
  1. 070710 - Veterinary Pharmacology (070710)
  2. 111504 - Pharmaceutical Sciences (111504)
Socio-Economic Objective
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  1. Anura
  2. skin absorption
  3. amphibian
  4. toxicokinetics
  5. wildlife toxicology
  6. octanol–water partition coefficient
  7. Anura
Research Activity
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Research Themes
Tropical Ecosystems, Conservation and Climate Change
Tropical Health, Medicine and Biosecurity
CC BY-NC 4.0: Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 International
License - Other
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Access Rights/Conditions
Please contact the data manager or nominated primary contact to negotiate access to this data. If you have difficulty, please contact for assistance.
Once access to the data has been obtained via negotiation with the data manager, use of the dataset is governed by the CC-BY-NC licence.
Data Location
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Stored At
Secure data section of the Tropical Data Hub (TDH) archive - eResearch Centre, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland, Australia
Llewelyn, V. (2019): In vitro percutaneous absorption data for model chemicals in Litoria caerulea and Rhinella marina: chemicals formulated in Amphibian Ringer’s solution. James Cook University. (dataset).
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